This is our Math Dictionary words that start with T page. There is a mix of hard to imagine words here and super simple words like triangle.
Table - a way of organizing data in columns and rows.
Tally Mark - a small mark used to help keep track of a count.
Tangent - a line that meets a smooth curve at a single point and does not cut across the curve.
Tangent - the secant of an angle is the ratio of the opposite side to the adjacent side.
Tangent Line - a line that intersects a circle or graph in just one local point.
Tautology - a sentence that is true because of its logical structure.
Tens column - the second column of numbers to the left of the decimal point.
Terms - individual numbers in a mathmatical operation or equation. Like terms use the same letters 5ab and 8ab. Unlike terms use different letters 7xy and 9yz.
Tessellation - a repeated geometric design that covers a plane without gaps or overlaps.
Tetrahedron - a three dimensional geometric figure (a polyhedron) that is made up of 4 equilateral triangles.
Tetromino - a four-square polyomino.
Theorem - a mathematical statement that has been proven to be true.
Theoretical Probability - the chances of events happening as determined by calculating results that would occur under ideal circumstances.
Theories of Probability - a theory of probability is a way of understanding probability statements. That is, a theory of probability connects the mathematics of probability, which is the set of consequences of the axioms of probability, with the real world of observation and experiment.
Toeplitz Matrix - a matrix in which all the elements are the same along any diagonal that slopes from northwest to southeast.
Tolerance - the amount of error accepted in a given situation.
Torus - a geometric solid in the shape of a donut.
Total - sum, or the overall sum of numbers, or quantities, of many equations.
Trace - the trace of a matrix is the sum of the terms along the principal diagonal.
Transcendental Number - a number that is not algebraic.
Translate - In a tessellation, to translate an object means repeating it by sliding it over a certain distance in a certain direction.
Transversal - a line or ray that divides other lines or rays.
Trapezium - a quadrilateral in which no sides are parallel.
Trapezoid - a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides.
Triangle - a geometric figure with three sides.
Triangular Number - a number of the form n(n+1)/2.
Trigonometry - the study of the geometry of triangles.
Trinomial - an algebraic expression consisting of 3 terms; a polynomial with three terms.
Tromino - a three-square polyomino.
Truncated Cube - created by truncating the tips of the cube one third of the way into each edge.
Truncated Cuboctahedron - created by truncating (cutting off) the cuboctahedron one third of the way into each side.
Truncated Dodecahedron - created by truncating (cutting off) the tips of the dodecahedron one third of the way into each edge.
Truncated Icosahedron - created by truncating (cutting off) the tips of the icosahedron one third of the way into each edge.
Truncated Icosidodecahedron - created by truncating (cutting off) the icosidodecahedron one third of the way into each side.
Truncated Octahedron - created by truncating (cutting off) the tips of the octahedron one third of the way into each edge.
Truncated Pyramid - a section of a pyramid between its base and a plane parallel to the base.
Truncated Tetrahedron - created by truncating (cutting off) the tips of the tetrahedron one third of the way into each edge.
Twin Primes - two prime numbers that differ by 2. For example, 11 and 13 are twin primes.
I know this about Math and Science, if your students understand the basic prefixes, roots, and suffixes; they'll be able to discern the meaning of more terms.
For instance the suffix tri-. Almost any word that begins with this suffix means that there are three of what the root word indicates. A triangle has three angles, a tricycle has three wheels, etc.
I went all the way through two degrees not seeing truncated cuboctahedrons (what are these doing in children's Math books?!), but at a glance I know that the word truncated means that something is cut and I can see the octa meaning eight and I'll bet that I could have gotten a multiple choice test question right just knowing these definitions.
I keep these definitions as a glossary in my binder.